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So now we want to talk about different types of science. There are discovery based based science and then theres what youve probably already heard about in high hypothesis based science. But lets start with discovery.
Discovery based science is we are trying to observe the natural world. Without preconceptions. Its very self explanatory you look cool you see a thing.
The purpose of discovery based science is you are trying to discover new things. But when were discovering new things. Its hard to guess.
Whats out there. So that the goal here is you just want to see as much as possible. Astronomers do this all the time they just want to look at a different part of the sky.
Unfortunately sometimes its really hard to get funding for this type of science. Because we dont know the application. It will be we dont know what well find i can make some guesses based on knowledge.
We already have but the purpose here is we might want to discover something brand new and this is really the precursor to any other science and so many beautiful things have been discovered out here this was the basis for victoria naturalist and all their weird collecting habit habits. They were just fascinated with what was out there and thats our question. We just want to see and discover more cool things.
But once weve made some observations now we can start to make some predictions.
And thats where hypothesis based science comes in so here we want to discover reliable information because we are manipulating our environment. We are molding we are changing as so we can learn something new in this way here you can see in this comic. A normal person.
When there is a podium that comes ab c. With lightning probably wouldnt do it again. But a scientist will wonder if that happens every time our process.
When were doing hypothesis. Based science. Looks a little bit like this we of course start with those observations.
But it was been around for a little bit. Theres a lot of knowledge. Thats already out there so weak observe ourselves so we can also observe to researching what other people have already seen and once you have that in observations that kind of base knowledge.
Now you can come up with a question and from that question you want to come up with a hypothesis and that hypothesis should lead to a very specific prediction. If this happened then i expect to see this other thing and with that prediction you create an experiment with which to test it now. After you text you have two options could be supported you saw.
What you thought you would saw thats great then you can go back. And you can make another prediction can you feel flash. It out can you understand more aspects of the thing youre looking at more often than not your hypothesis isnt supported and then you have to go all the way back up to your hypothesis and replace that and try again and dont feel bad.
Its just how science works.
We try a lot of things that are wrong before we figure out whats actually going on lets talk about this hypothesis. This is a very important word you want to understand what it means so hear it think of it as an educated guess. But we are trying to explain whats going on.
But we havent tested it yet. It is just based on our research. So a pretty good idea.
But we need to confirm it um and the goal here is you want it to explain the things you observe so here. Theres two hypotheses either the spider and crew are they sure. Theres a couple of qualities that we want to make sure that all hypotheses have first they need to be logical.
They should make sense they want to be falsifiable. We also want to be consistent with what we already know especially since theres been so many things already done already discovered. We want to make sure that youre fitting into that framework of hundreds of years of science.
And we also want them to be simple. But lets start with falsifiable. What does this mean falsifiable just means that there are conditions under.
Which you can disprove this hypothesis. So in this example a miracle in the middle. You cant really disprove that but lets look at an example so here are two statements first now alien spaceships have ever crashed in new mexico second an alien spaceship crashed in new mexico about the same topic take a moment which one do you think is falsifiable.
So here are our answers.
The first one is falsifiable and the second one is not lets look at why so first no alien spaceships have ever crashed in new mexico. If we ever find a part of an alien spaceship. Then that statement is false so there are possible conditions under which we can disprove that statement so not likely to happen.
But there are conditions. Which it can be disproven the second one and alien spaceship crashed in new mexico. If its really wrong.
Theres only absence of evidence so were never really going to be able to disprove it so this is one of the instances. Where you want to make sure youre a little bit careful with your language and how youre forming your hypothesis. But next.
Lets talk about these predictions. A good hypothesis is meaningful. We want it to have applicable predictions to you know make meaningful sense of the world word.
Im not particularly knowledgeable about string theory. But a lot of people like to poke fun at it because whats the point well who cares and lastly. We do want our hypotheses to have simple explanations if theyre too complicated.
When are we going to use them. So theres two principles here. The first is occams razor.
One should not increase beyond.
What is necessary the number of entities required to explain anything really just means simple is better and related is parsimony. So if you have multiple explanations that are possible you want to choose the explanation that requires you to take the fewest leaves of logic. We use this especially when were talking about philo genetics.
So when we test these hypotheses. Who arent you know particularly motivated to disprove their own theories. But people are very motivated to disprove a few of other people.
And this is really how modern science works. We have a lot of different people a lot of different labs. Theyre all trying to disprove each other because they want to be on top.
But this provides a really rich ground to make sure things are constantly tested over and over again. So even if something is published that wasnt correct someone will figure it out really soon. But lets supposed to talk about what a theory is this is another really important word.
Which is occasionally loaded in modern day. A theory is larger than hypothesis. Its actually a collection of related hypotheses and these have been rigorously tested so if something is a scientific theory.
Its pretty darn strong lets look at some examples gravity electromagnetic theory atomic theory. The theory of relativity and my personal favorite evolution sometimes people throw around the term. Its just a theory especially when were talking about evolution.
But really a theory is a very strong set of related hypotheses that theyre consistent with each other they all talk about one larger thing and a theory is something thats pretty strong so keep in mind that we use theory. A little bit differently in science than how most people use it colloquially music. .
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