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To the north africa and southwest asia region for this week. A massively spanning part part of land culture. Lets first take a look at why.
And what makes a region to outsiders. We have here the region has characterized by five main qualities. The center of islam the locus of much of the earths petroleum resources overall scarcity of water predominantly.
Although not entirely arab and ethnicity and that women face significant discrimination. However they are playing an increasingly important political role. So what you may know about the region already is perhaps the fossil fuel reserves made up of oil and natural gas formed over millions of years from fossilized remains of dead plants and animals particularly around where there used to be inland seas.
These are found mainly around the persian gulf. Very prominent world fuel supplies there and many people in the region are not arab second third. Most populous countries in the region.
Turkey and iran are of non arab ethnicityz. Mostly as are many minority populations such as the kurds berbers christians and jews the role and status of women is in transition women are beginning to lead the fight for gender equity in the region and their life options are expanding as well see more in this mini lecture and take a look at throughout the week. Important terms in our book.
The authors choose not to use the term middle. East. The arab world is used only where it applies since many people in the region are not of arab ethnicity and importantly hear the term occupied palestinian territories refers to the gaza and west bank areas where israel still exerts control despite treaty agreements that would recognize these as independent.
Territories the us department of state uses the term palestinian territories and the un or the united nation upon the recently giving the territory observer status refers to it as the state of palestine. So state here meaning nation state or what we commonly hear as country so just a brief look at the physical geography and environmental issues that underpin this region you can see here a visual display of some of the stunning landscapes throughout the region. Whether it be in saudi arabias deserts or the steppes of morocco morocco also has some phenomenal mountains and scrolling down just a bit.
See the lower right is in turkey and the lower left photo is of the mediterranean coast in algeria. We can see some very significant vulnerabilities to climate change. Throughout the region particularly in the northern parts of the saharan desert down in cthugga as well yemen.
Much of this is politically driven on top of environmental stress climate change and desertification go hand in hand. Often in this region climate change. Canons accelerate desertification as temperatures increase soil.
Moisture decreases. Because even apparation and plant cover becomes reduced provides less protection for the arid soil groundwater levels fall because water is being pumped out for cities and irrigated agriculture entered out in whats important to keep in mind here. As well as that international development agencies have encouraged settlement of nomads and asked them to take up cattle ranching.
This is also contributed to desertification some of the backfiring consequences of different international development work see common amongst. Many regions of the world to take a quick look at human geography. The youve probably heard of the term.
The fertile crescent. This refers to this crescent or this arc between the zagros mountains of iran spanning into northern iraq and looping down the tigris river into the persian gulf between 10000 and 8000 years ago nomadic people settled in the uplands of the tigris and euphrates northern ii president day. Iraq and this is part of the region that became known as the fertile crescent and importantly here.
Whats very important to keep in mind is that this is one of the original birth places of agriculture and we would be remiss to not talk about the very important religious history of the region fertile crescent and and broader yet here the coming of monotheism. The belief based on the idea that theres only one god began to emerge. Several thousand years ago.
Challenging the religions of the day that believed in many gods so firstly judaism founded about four thousand years ago. The patriarch abraham led his followers from mesopotamia to the shores of the eastern mediterranean where he founded judaism and the jews rebelled against the roman empire. They were expelled in 73 common era from eastern mediterranean coast line and they were enslaved by the romans had migrated to other lands in the diaspora.
Here. We have a key word that we see come up and many different ethnicities and cultures migrating moving around the world this is a dispersion of an originally localized people so besides the jewish diaspora. We can think of many different dinosaurs.
Including the irish diaspora and late 19th century starting in the midnight century. More recently of global renown. As the chinese diaspora more more chinese people moving around the world.
So this can be based on both push and pull factors as well not necessarily in terms of stress. Christianity emerged later than judaism based on the teachings of jesus of nazareth. A jew claiming to be the son of god gathered fellows in the area of palestine about 2000.
Years ago. Jesus taught that there is one god who primarily loves and supports humans. But who will judge those who do evil and the coming of monotheism continued can see jesuss execution in jerusalem about thirty to common era.
His teachings were written down by the gospels who followed him his ideas were interpreted by these writers spread and what became known as christianity and lastly islam. Now the dominant religion in the region emerged and about the seventh century common era. After the prophet muhammad transmitted the quran to his followers by writing down.
What was conveyed to him by allah and followers of islam. Known as muslims believed that muhammad was the final and most important and long series of prophets. Which included abraham moses and jesus so theres a direct lineage between these monotheistic religions.
Something thats often forgotten there are three holy books all share significant parts of whats known to christianity as the old testament. And this is yeah. I further indicates the similarities between them that is often forgotten in media and popular society here.
We see the spread of islam or we can think of it as another diaspora as well very interestingly color coded between different centuries. The ottoman cities facilitated. Vast trading networks.
Spanning the known world as we see there in the top center region ottoman empire. Was based out of whats current a turkey. Istanbul.
Bee quit became the cosmetology and capital with elaborate buildings and lavish public parks that outshine anything in europe. Until the early 19th century. This was hundreds and hundreds of years before that and under the arab empires.
The christians buddhists zoroastrians they practiced the religions. But there were they were allowed to practice their own religions. But there were economic and social advantages to converting to islam.
We see a wide wide expanse into spain. Even toledo and under lucia down into southern south west to timbuktu eastward. Continuing eastward from off of this map into the indonesia and beyond in contrast.
We see the division of the region by colonial regimes in the early part of the 20th century. Leaving a stark and lasting impact especially in israel and palestine. Currently and many other places of africa as well and the globalization and development front very important to recognize the fossil fuel exports from the region european and north american companies were first to exploit the fossil fuels reserves in the early 20th century they only paid government small royalties for the rights to extract oil as the oil and gas prices have risen and fallen dramatically since 73.
When the governments in the gulf states raised the price of oil and gas. And he started opec. The organization of the petroleum exporting countries form a cartel facilitated.
The price hikes in 1973 opec. Members cooperate to restrict or increase oil production. Significantly influence.
The price of oil on world markets. Its important to keep in mind. That many opec countries were exceedingly poorer 40 years ago.
But have become much wealthier since 1973. I also became more vulnerable to economic downturns as a result this rose in 1973 for the gulf states for imposing penalty in response to us support for israel and the 1973 yom kippur war between israel and the neighboring arab countries in israel began invading other countries so here we see major opec flows. Very large arrows from the middle east headed to asia in particular the the width of the arrow.
There indicating greater amounts of flow. You see opec latin america. As well with ecuador and venezuela.
Its important to keep in mind that these are opec doesnt only include north african and southwest asian countries and world reserves of oil is another very interesting chart to pay attention to in your in your text we see some of the big players such as saudi arabia. Venezuela iraq very large countries represented proportionally there also with whos using the oil and the power and politics note. Its important to remember here.
The arab spring that took place just seven years ago. Political protests swept across north africa in 2010 into syria by 2011. Eventually resulting in the toppling long standing.
Dictators in tunisia. Egypt and libya over not in syria this political disquiet or disruption reflected. The fact that historically most governments in the region.
Gave citizens little ability to influence how decisions were made so as you know these are citizen movements that were in rebellion. And in contrast to the dictator. Dictatorial or authoritarian regimes people across the region saw governments as unresponsive and corrupt and themselves as powerless to influence the government in any way there was a neat correspondence between occupy wall street.
Many cities of the west as well as what was happening with the arab spring pizzas being ordered for each other from cairo into cities in north america and support in north american europe for the arab spring as well whats important also important here is that the role of islam. Should should play in society. Has been a most contentious issue of long term significance relates to determining.
Which system of laws. Should be adopted those advocating for a more secular approach to governments versus. Fundamental islam as well as which protections women should be offered very salient issues arab spring here.
We see here as shown and colored mapping governments overthrown. Large scale protests small scale protests. And in contrast.
Even no political strife. So the role the press media and the internet. Cannot be overemphasized in this its very important much of the region in much of the region journalism can often be risky often leading to imprisonment in saudi arabia dozens of newspapers and newsstands are controlled by the royal saud family al jazeera founded by the emitter of qatar.
Has affected climate for political discourse. To cross the region sets a high standard for journalism. Hopefully some of you have been able to watch.
Al jazeera or read al jazeera. The role of the internet and cell phone technology has as a force for political change. Emerged during the iranian protests in 2009 in onions.
With video capable cellphones meant the world instantly saw via the internet. The brutality of the iranian police and army democratization and women. Most countries in the region now allow women to vote israel and turkey have elected female heads of state in the past that is nevertheless women who want to actively participate politics still face.
Many barriers. However chain patterns are changing as more women become educated and employed outside of the home and finally a quick note on population and gender population growth rates are higher in societies. Where women are not accorded.
Basic human rights are less educated and work primarily inside the home so as those conditions change women have less children as we see around the. World. Although fertility rates have dropped significantly since the 1960s in this region 31.
Children per adult woman in. 2012 this is still significantly higher than the world average of 26. So deeply entrenched cultural preferences for sons in the region is both a cause and result of womens lower social and economic standing.
Unfortunately and also contributes to population growth as family sometimes continued to have children. But they have it as a desired number of sons and we see here some of the key pictures from the text. While the region has notably more restrictive.
Customary and legal limits on women for instance. The ban on women drivers in the gulf states changes have been made as when we become more active in public life including just last year more women being able to begin driving in saudi arabia. So that wraps it up for this mini lecture and i look forward to your questions and our discussions down below please post thanks.
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