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s talk about these five major types of chemical reactions. Well look at examples examples of each and learn how to tell them apart. So.
That you can look a chemical reaction and classify it figure out what type. It is the first reaction. Were going to talk about is the synthesis reaction.
These are sometimes called combination reactions. Now synthesis is just a fancy word that means making and thats exactly what happens in a synthesis reaction. A compound is made from simpler materials heres an example carbon comes together with oxygen gas to make carbon dioxide co2 what we make in this reaction is more complex than the two simple things we start with heres another example.
We take sodium and chlorine gas. Cl2 and that makes sodium chloride nacl. What we end up with is more complex than the simple things we started with now a quick word about the equations that im using in this lesson.
Some of these equations. Im going to be talking about like this one right here are unbalanced. So there might not be exactly the same number of atoms on both sides of the equation now normally its really important to balance equations.
But when were going to be learning about the different types of reactions. The balancing numbers can be a little bit distracting so here i just want you to focus on the elements. And how theyre rearranging or combining with each other in different ways that being said.
A synthesis reaction is one where we start with simple materials and put them together to make something more complex. If we want to represent a synthesis reaction more generally or more generically. We could say that it looks kind of like this we have a and b.
Combining to make a b. Here. A and b are different elements or theyre different compounds coming together to make something more complex.
So thats a synthesis reaction. Lets move on a decomposition reaction is kind of the opposite of a synthesis reaction in a synthesis reaction. We put things together in a decomposition reaction.
A compound is broken down into simpler compounds or all the way down to the elements that make it up so in this example here. We have water h2o and its breaking down into hydrogen and oxygen gas. These the elements that make it up now in a decomposition reaction.
You dont have to break things down all the way down to their basic elements. You can also break them down just into simpler compounds for example here. We have caco3 calcium carbonate.
And that gets broken down to two simpler compounds. Ca o and co2. Its not like were taking this and breaking it down into just calcium and just carbon and just oxygen.
But still because these are simpler compounds. It is also a decomposition reaction. So if we wanted to come up with sort of a generalized way to write a decomposition reaction.
We could write it like this a b breaking apart into a plus b. Where a b is some kind of compound and a and b are simpler compounds or elements. Okay.
Combustion reactions combustion is basically a fancy word for burn and when something burns what happens is that a compound containing carbon and hydrogen and sometimes oxygen combines with oxygen gas to produce carbon dioxide and water here in my example ch4 which is the chemical formula for methane thats a type of natural gas combines with oxygen and it forms carbon dioxide and water h2o now we can start with different things in a combustion reaction. And as it says here. The compound usually contains carbon and hydrogen.
So here is another example of a combustion reaction. This one starts with c3h8. Which is the chemical formula for propane.
Another type of natural gas and just like with this reaction we combine c3h8 with o2 and this gives us carbon dioxide and water so these two reactions are essentially identical except for the number of carbons and hydrogens in the compound that we start with it turns out that a lot of things that we burn like natural gas. Diesel gasoline are really really similar and they only really differ in the number of carbons and hydrogens that are in the molecules that make them up. So combustion reactions for a wide variety of compounds look pretty similar.
Now as this definition says sometimes we have oxygen in the compound that were burning here is one example of a combustion reaction. That has oxygen in it. This is a chemical formula for ethanol or ethyl alcohol.
And you can see that just like these it has lots of carbons and hydrogens except. It also has oxygen as well thats no big deal because it combusts. Just like the other two by combining with oxygen and making co2 and h2o.
So if we wanted to come up with a general way to write the formula for a combustion reaction. It might look a little bit like this we start out with something that has carbon and hydrogen in it and we can have different numbers of carbons and hydrogens. So thats why i put this x and y here because a number of carbons and hydrogens varies.
And it doesnt really matter either sometimes the compound has oxygen.
Which is why i put the oxygen here in parentheses. We take this compound it combines with oxygen and it produces carbon dioxide and water so this here is the generic general equation for a combustion reaction single replacement reactions break my heart and in a minute. Youll see why so in a single replacement reaction.
What happens is it one element that starts out by itself. Replaces. Another element and a compound kicking it out and heres an example to show you what i mean we start out with iron fe.
Which is this element. Thats by itself an iron combines with cucl. 2.
Which is copper chloride okay so copper and chloride are paired up here. But what happens is iron kicks out the copper. The cu so the cu ends up by itself and the fe.
The iron takes the place of that copper so now the iron and the cl. They are now paired up. Now.
Id like to use a dance analogy to explain this and it reminds me of something that happened all the time in high school heres whats going on we have a dancing couple the purple and the green and theyre so happy dancing together or at least the purple guy is pretty happy dancing and then red comes along and red is like hey purple. Im so much cooler get out of the way i want to dance with green and so poor. Purple gets booted out and red ends up dancing with green purple ends up all by himself standing up against the wall pretending to text pretending to play game on a cell phone.
But you know hes really actually sad. Because hes just been booted from this dancing couple. So youll see that this is exactly whats going on in a single replacement reaction right effie iron.
Is like red here coming up to a dancing couple of cu and cl. It boots out cu cu ends up by itself and then red iron takes the place that cu had an iron ends up paired with cl. Heres one more example of a single replacement reaction you can see how this works cu in this case.
Is the red character and cu goes to a dancing couple of ag silver and nitrate agno3 cu boots out ag. So ag ends up by itself and cu takes a gs place by pairing up with. No3.
So that is how single replacement reaction happens and a generalized reaction for that would look like a which is the element that starts out by itself. Plus bc thats the dancing couple and then that gives us b. By itself.
Which is this element that got booted out and then a and c ending up pair together. So thats a single replacement reaction. So finally heres the double replacement reaction now.
I should mention that single and double replacement reactions are sometimes also called single displacement and double displacement. Just in case. Your teacher textbook.
You is a different term for them okay. So double replacement reactions are not nearly as heartbreaking as single replacement reactions. Heres why because in a double replacement reaction.
What happens is the positive and negative ions in two compounds just switch places nobody gets kicked out in a double replacement reaction in a double replacement of reaction. Its just like you have two different pairs of dancing couples and the red. Which used to be with the gray ends up with a green and the purple which used to be with the green ends up with the gray nobody gets kicked out nobodys sad up against the wall with their cell phones were just switching dancing partners.
So here is a chemical equation that shows a double replacement reaction. We start out with ba and cl. Together and then na and so4 together.
And they just switch places. So ba ends up with so4. There it is and na ends up with cl.
There it is right there all of these compounds are ionic. Which means that we can break them down into the positive and negative ions that theyre made up of so here. The positive ions are in purple and the negative ions are in green and as you can see the positive.
And the negative just switch places. So ba. 2 plus and cl.
Minus were initially paired up. But then ba goes and it gets switched. It finds a new dancing partner.
It has to find the other negative ion. Right so the other negative ion. Here is so4 2 minus.
So ba 2 plus.
And so4 2 minus end up together making baso. 4. And then sodium na 1.
Plus has to find the other negative ion. Which here is cl. Minus.
And they end up paired up over. Here. And a1.
Plus and cl. One making nacl heres another example of a double replacement reaction. Okay.
Ill break this down into its ions right away. And we get this we start with. K.
Plus and br minus. Pair. Together and ag 1.
Plus and no3 1. Minus pair together and then they just switch the positive and negative so. K.
Goes and finds the other. Negative ion which here is no3. 1 minus.
K. Plus and. No3 1.
Minus. End up. Together.
In a g. 1. Plus.
Silver looks for the other negative ion. Which is br. 1 minus.
And a g 1. Plus. And br 1 minus end up paired up together making a g br.
So that is a double replacement reaction and if we wanted to come up with a general or a generic way to explain it we could use this reaction here. Where you have a b. Where a and b are paired up plus c.
D. Where c. And d are paired up.
And then they switch partners to give us a d and b c. So. That is a double replacement reaction so these are our five major types of chemical reactions in synthesis simple things combine together to make something more complex in decomposition.
Something complex breaks apart into simpler pieces. In combustion. A compound that contains carbon hydrogen and sometimes oxygen comes together with oxygen gas to make carbon dioxide and water single replacement and double replacement are our two dance floor reactions in single replacement and element.
Thats by itself combines with two elements that are paired up it kicks. One of those elements out so that element ends up on its own and then that element takes its place in double replacement. Its like two dancing couples.
Where the partners. Just trade places. A and b.
And c and d. Start out paired together. And then a and d end up together and b and c end up together.
So those are the major types of chemical reactions in the next video. Well do some practice problems so you can look at a bunch of different reactions and figure out what type they are .
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