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This lecture. We will be reviewing some of the energy considerations relative to nutrition that that you need to have right in your pocket for your medical licensing exams. These include basal metabolic rate as well as body mass index total energy expenditure as well the fuel caloric values.
And so forth so moving into looking at basal metabolic rate. Most often well consider resting metabolic rate. Because its the much more simple measurement to make resting metabolic rate.
Doesnt take into account having to have 12 hours of fasting and necessitate 8 hours of sleep. Its a simple measurement taken upon waking and getting up so resting metabolic rate is generally we use in an equation to calculate our basal metabolic rate. But if we are going to do it very clinically.
We would measure the vo2 at various times on various days. But again we will generally use an equation to calculate basal metabolic rate. And ill introduce you to or help you review two of them that will be important for you to keep in mind.
This first one you probably just need to know the name of but if you want to go beyond that you could memorize the equation. Were not going to spend the time deriving it. But it takes into account the age of the individual as well as the gender weight and height.
And you can see that there is an adjustment over there on the right hand side based on the gender. Whether its a male or a female and again. You dont need to understand where the numbers come from its a plug and chug kind of thing measuring height in centimeters and weight in kilograms more commonly these days.
Though the katch mcardle formula is utilized in which we consider pretty standard numbers basal metabolic rate equals 370. 216. Times the lean mass in kilograms.
The catch here is that we have to know the body fat percentage. And that turns out to be not so difficult to ascertain these days of course you can do caliper testing. But there are bioelectrical impedance devices that patients can just hold on to and we get a fairly decent estimate or at least relative estimate of the body fat percentage.
So we can calculate lean mass by subtracting the body fat percentage. So katch mcardle is the one i would certainly commit to memory and keep in your pocket for use on your exam. Now total energy expenditure is the energy we use beyond our basal metabolic requirements.
Plus. All the other things that we do in a day. So all our caloric needs over a 24 hour period first of all you probably realize.
But maybe havent thought about it in the total energy expenditure realm that when we consume food. It actually costs as calories to consume and digest that food so that is the thermic effect of feeding and thats about a 10 of our total energy expenditure in a day now of course in addition to that we have some physical activity. Some of that physical activity is activity that we choose to do as we move around.
But even when we are sitting still we are still burning calories and we need to add this physical activity. Whether its intended exercise or general mobility. We need to add this to our basal metabolic rate.
So theres the component of physical activity that we call neat another term you should be familiar with which is our non exercise activity thermogenesis. So this is when your sitting at your desk. And you feel like youre doing nothing and not burning any calories in fact we are burning calories during that because we have to have muscles firing to keep us upright.
And not in a pile on the floor. So all of these pieces go into the calculation of total energy expenditure and then how do we calculate the physical activity piece of this this is can be pretty controversial calculation. I suppose because as always when people give us numbers they vary from source to source.
But in general we will take our basal metabolic rate and multiply it by a certain factor dependent on the activity level. So someone who is sedentary will have a lower factor to multiply by than someone who is particularly active again youll see a vast difference in the actual figures provided. What i recommend is that you get a perspective of what sort of factor.
It is so somewhere between 1 and 2.
However we really know that there are extreme athletes people that are riding century rides ultrmarathoners might run 50 miles in a day they are certainly going to be above the extremely active level. So you might even see numbers towards. 3.
So dont go memorizing the numbers just sort of get a relative idea that physical activity is multiplying the basal metabolic rate by a particular factor. indias traditional corporation or corporate ladder. As it as it speaks and thats what this details on the right side.
We think of a corporate ladder. Like the ceo being at the top and various business managers at the upper echelon and then as you go through it there are you know maybe. A regional managers and then there are people that run different stores or departments and at the bottom of the vast number of blue collar workers or people who are doing you know the real hard.
Difficult work now you could move up the corporate ladder. Start in the mail room and end up upstairs in the corporate floor thats possible. But with indias a corporate ladder system that they call the caste system.
Its a little bit different. Its very complex three thousand different castes. So dont think that this simple version that were showing you here.
And ill back this up a little bit and to show you this its not that simple there are many jockeys or jobs. Within. The cast that can be performed and many.
Times these casts are divided into sub caste related. Occupation theres 25000. Or so of those.
And there are some benefits to this and theres some negatives benefits are youre going to have a pretty proportionate. Number of folks working in the industries. You need to have your civilization.
Thrive and survive. But youre not may be able to do the job that you feel like you were born to do or made to do unless youre somebody from this system who understands that in the case of the caste system. If you were born into that cast and that is what your duty or your job is to do so a little bit further look at this would be the traitors.
The vases which our famous members include different people like mohandas gandhi. The independent leader or independence leader and the father of the nation of this new nation of india that gets created and that wont be told towards the end of our look at world history. To show how how that works.
I think its chapter 23. For us. Weve got a ways to go there.
The sudras are your manual workers and servants and you may say to yourself wow. I thought that would be an untouchable group of people those folks or the dalit class. Is even below the manual workers or servants.
In this caste system is very rigid system. They were formerly known as untouchables now called dalits and they perform unpleasant jobs like cleaning a leather tanning and with some changes in india. The dalits or becoming potentially being able to excuse me there have become entrepreneurs or get jobs in the high tech fields that there are out there so there is some potential breakage in that untouchable system in fact youve got former presidents of india and political leaders and chief architects of the indian constitution this is not as rigid as it used to be but obviously in the past and in this time period.
Its extremely rigid being an untouchable. There are lots of video clips on youtube that can help explain this better than i can and well probably see one of them in class. One.
Where students go out and try to find out if there is such a thing as untouchability still in the world or just the caste system itself. What youll find today in india. Is in the more rural areas.
The caste system seems to still be there.
But its been supplanted in the more urban areas by this ability to rise through the workforce. Now knowing. Some former students as i have who are from india the way they explain it is this they feel like theres not the caste system that there used to be however if you wish to marry somebody who is outside your cast that may not be permitted from permitted.
So it just kind of depends maybe. Upon your family and their relationship and and how they look at the more traditional values of their society. So here are a couple terms that im sure youve heard before dharma and karma.
Dharma is the indian belief that performance of the duties appropriate to an individuals cast good performance and doing your duty or your dharma will lead to a rebirth and a higher higher caste and eventually this will lead to your soul reaching an enlightened stage or sense karma is this indian belief that the force thats generated by doing your duty or performing ones behaviors in life that your caste specifies that if youve done that in your previous life. Then you move to a level at which an individual will be reborn in a higher caste. This is really difficult for the american mindset to come to grips with i mean we are about the here and the now and you know what do you how do you guys say you only live once theres no yellow in indian caste system.
Theres a belief that youre going to live again in another form. So youve got to do your duty. Well here today to get there now some of our students who havent grown up in that system would say to themselves well i dont get that i dont think i can wait that long and when i am reborn.
I wont even know that i performed well because i wont have an attachment to that consciousness any longer. This is just one of those things a difference between eastern and western perspectives. The individualism of the west and a more of a collective way of thinking in the east.
Where you do your duty for your cast. And for your people. Your village or your country.
And for the main reason of saying. Hey i am going to do my duty. Well.
It will provide me good karma. We think of karma today almost in a way. Like if i do something good today.
Ive built up good karma. And then ill have good luck tomorrow. That is not how they look at it in india.
Not that simplistic and not that immediate what youre going to see is this good karma is going to grow. But its almost like the life force in the video game so youve gone around youve collected your gold coins. Or your gold rings or whatever.
It is the video games asked you to do you get to a point. Where youre low on energy or you are you die well youll respawn seven seconds later in the game. And youll have another life and if youve played some of these games video games especially some of these platformer games or first person shooter.
Games. A lot of them have that kind of competitive angle to it where you do your duty. Which is the task of the game.
And you can see it across the top of the bar. That youre building up your karma or your coins. Or whats going to give you the opportunity to have another life when you slip up and and die in this one.
Its not exactly the same. But maybe that gives you better sense of understanding. It lets look here more closely at china and again.
Im going to reiterate this the caste system defined social order in terms of religious ideals and ideas about the creation of the universe. More explicitly and more closely than class based systems. Okay.
Theres emperor wu d.
On the left. The first civil service exams as we said before and on the right. I love to talk with this because i just feel like im playing the old banjo.
Her name is bond joe and maybe its like bon jovi. I dont know. But the chinese woman and a writer and a court official whose work provides really valuable insight on the position of women and patriarchy within.
The chinese society and you could also look in the chinese system and youll see emperor empress wu and you want to say emperor dont you because there arent very many empresss but theres this one the only female emperor in the history of china who patronized scholarship. So she was very interested in learning and worked to alleviate the position of women or elevate sorry not alleviate. She wasnt looking to do it.
But elevate the position of women and she provoked a backlash of confucius misogynist invective. Lets tell you what that means confucian asst. Believe in what what are the three or you could even go as deep as five relationships that you have to adhere to and sort of cater to these relationships.
The father the older brother the emperor in the very minimum youre going to be someone who is going to follow orders. And do as youre told. Thats a way to keep order in a very chaotic world the women of that world and the confucius view were absolutely subservient to men at all corners.
And its similar to what weve studied in athenian democracy. In the end athens. Greece.
Where women had to have someone escort them anywhere. They went there were very few places women could go in there and they couldnt own property. They couldnt they couldnt buy things so youve got a woman who rises to become emperor asst and theres a long story with that and im not going to get into it here because we wont have as much time.
But we will in the future. But she once she becomes empress has this and youll see this with china. So dont think that its always consistently going to be strongly confucian with these strong confucian ideas.
They vary. And there are cycles with this sort of like this the cycles of the dynastic cycles. But there are cycles of very strong confucian times and there are cycles.
When its not in favor as much she provokes a huge backlash against this idea that women could be elevated in society. So the three obedience is like i mentioned is this chinese confucian principle and a woman is permanently subordinate to male control emperors government officials fathers husbands and even sons eldest son a woman would be listening to them as much as she would be telling them what to do thats certainly true. The scholar gentry.
Is as land. Owning families who lending. Owning families who reflecting their wealth from the land and their privileged that they derived as government officials.
So theyre scholars theyve earned it by taking the civil service exam. And theyre gentry or another way of saying that like gentlemanly. I guess is another way of saying.
Youre looked up to as someone in a higher class. The yellow turban rebellion is a massive chinese uprising peasant uprising inspired by taoist teachings with a goal of establishing new golden age of equality and harmony and providing less confucianused principles. This is a something that youll see here and its that cycle.
I was telling you about where the chinese will sometimes have very strong periods of confucianism and then maybe a weaker or step back of confucianism or maybe a taoist principles. We saw before legalism and also buddhist principles may come into play in this case. A taoist leader rises to power and well learn more about them as we go through here and study china in the next unit kind of recapping this to give you what you need to know for the test.
And to understand is that the caste system is extremely rigid and they both both systems are using a social hierarchy. However how can you move up in class. If youre a chinese and even potentially be a woman and one woman does this become empress.
Its very simple its through the civil service exam.
If youve proven your worth you can move up and be elevated in class you could own land then and your family will benefit from that but your sons certainly would have to go through that same civil service exam. Situation to continue to gain that for them so in a way thats sort of like rising and falling on your own merit and that gives some structure theres certainly structure in these class and caste systems. But less so in china.
Something not mentioned in here that i want to bring up and talk about is the view of merchants in china. The chinese werent always catering to the peasants. Very well or to the farmers.
Very well no society does well with that especially early in the world. But they look at merchants or people who are selling things and look down upon them in a big way they look up to those people who have earned their position in the world. By testing through the civil service exam.
And showing their worth. So the merchants and traders that come into china and delivering with them all kinds of goods to trade along those silk roads were going to talk about in the next unit. They are important they also bring with them a new idea called buddhism and well see it change form from the theravada version of the original ideas of buddhism to a mahayana buddhism.
And the reason it must change forms. Really is that the chinese people dont really trust whats being brought to them they look it a little bit differently and they dont look at merchants or people who are selling you things in a positive light. Theres a lot of theres a lot of distrust.
There another way to consider that and think about it is like this if you go to the mall. And theres somebody comes running up to you trying to sell you something by this cell. Phone try on this lotion heres some perfume whatever their people to just i nature.
I mean nuts. Im just like stiff arm time right im giving them the heisman. Just leave me alone.
The chinese felt the same way do you want people calling your house at dinnertime and bugging you to vote for somebody or to buy this or or buy that or somebody come to your door and knock on your door and asking you to buy this that another thing soliciting you and so the chinese are very against that idea. Its kind of a kind of ironic today because theyre economically powerful based upon these new principles of capitalism that theyve instituted on top of their communist government. Now the other part of this is that you may say to yourself well how did merchants survive.
How were they able to do business. If the chinese didnt want them around and obviously you need trade china is one of the greatest civilizations and empires basically that have arisen in this certainly this this semester. Its number one in the entire world theres nothing in the world that can match.
What the chinese might has going for it so marchants must be somehow successful well they are very successful. How are they successful theyre successful because of what strayer terms backdoor relationships. Which means that theyre not doing business in the front.
The people are going around the back to the back door. Theyll knock on the back door. And do business with the people who are the scholar gentry or the wealthy people of china.
So openly they didnt like merchants. But there was this unspoken or not talked about relationship with merchants and people of wealth. Obviously because they want to get things and own things and trade.
But i think its important to consider that because if you look at the class system in china. I dont want you to forget about the fact. That although farmers and peasants are low in the class system.
Theyre viewed highly seen as important to society as is the scholar gentry. But theyre also have an elevated position because of their wealth towards the bottom is their feelings on merchants and theyre not very comfortable with the idea of being sold things and in some ways. Thats a confucian astrinsky want to make it yourself do it on your own or trust in the system.
Thats apparent that there in setup for you to accomplish your goals and youll need the outside world to help you do that so hopefully this helps you a little bit with chinese class and indian caste it can be somewhat confusing i try to very much simplified here in these notes or not a lot of notes to write. But if you get the idea of the chinese being a less rigid system. And wheres our one thing that weve really focused on here that the caste systems define.
Social groups more rigidly and with less opportunity for social mobility. Thats what you really need to know well see you next time. And well continue our talk on social inequalities with a special focus on rome and china as we get prepared for the test on unit.
Number two till next time dont forget to be awesome. .
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